Networking Basics with Simple and Easy Definitions

Logo August 8, 2021 at 12:31 PM | Gorkhali                  

Networking Basics

Networking Basics

Network : Connecting the device to each other.

Networking: Exchanging information between device.

IP : There is two version of IP .

a) IPv4 

b) IPv6

There is two types of IP 

a) Public IP

b) Private IP

Classes of IPv4 : There is mainly 3 class in IPv4

Class A – Range From 1 – 126

Class B – Range From 128 – 191

Class C – Range From 192 – 223

Private IP of Different Classes :

A10.0.0.0 – 10.255. 255.255
B172.16.0.0 –
C192.168.0.0 – 192. 168. 255.255

OSI Model

Layer 7ApplicationAwayData
Layer 6PresentationPizzaData
Layer 5SessionSausageData
Layer 4TransportThrowSegment
Layer 3NetworkNotPackets (IP Address)
Layer 2Data LinkDoFrame (MAC)
Layer 1PhysicalPleaseBits


Application -1Gateways (Most of Gateway)
Session -1Gateways
Transport -1Gateways
Network -2Router / Layer 3 switch
Data Link -3Bridge / Switch
Physical -4Hub / Repeater

Router: Layer-3 Device

  • WAN Device
  • Connect two or more networks
  • Router is an Internetworking Device
  • In Router every port has its own Broadcast Domain
  • Uses IP address send in form of packets
  • Maintain Routing Table

Switch: Layer-2

  • Full Duplex
  • Maintain CAM Table
  • First Broadcast then unicast & multicast
  • Every port of switch is separate collision domain
  • Switch has one Broadcast Domain
  • 8/16/24/48 Ports
  • Slow , 10Mbps (wireless) , 100 Mbps (wired)
  • Switch is having unique MAC address

HUB : Layer -1 Device

  • Half Duplex
  • Electrical Signal or Bits
  • Can not store MAC
  • Always Broadcast
  • Single Collision Domain
  • LAN Device
  • Active and Passive HUB

Repeater: It Regenerate Signals

Types of Switch (Multiport Bridge)

  1. Store and Forward Switch
  2. Cut through Switch
  3. Fragment Free Switch
  4. Adaptive Switching


Subnet Mask :

ClassSubnet Mask
A /8255.0.0.0 (N-H-H-H) 8 Bits Network and 24 Bits Host
B /16255.255.0.0 (N-N-H-H) 16 Bits Network and 16 Bits Host
C /24255.255.255.0 (N-N-N-H) 24 Bits Network and 8 Bits Host

*N= Network *H=Host

Difference between TCP and UDP

TCP ( Transmission Control Protocol )UDP ( User Datagram Protocol )
Connection-oriented protocolConnection less protocol
Guarantee deliveryPacket can loss
Example is EmailVideo call, Voice Call – Realtime use
Error checking support No Error checking
TCP is SlowerUDP is Faster

Transmission Modes :

  • Simplex – One way – Only one device on a link can transmits the other can only Receive. Examples : FM, TV, Keyboard .
  • Half Duplex – Each can transmit and receive but not at same time. Examples : Walkie-Talkie
  • Full Duplex – Both Station can transmit and Receive Simultaneously capacity of the link is shared among two. Examples: Telephone, Mobile

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